Tomatoes originated in South and Central America, where they were likely small and yellow–ancient versions of today’s cherry tomatoes. After they were brought to Europe, they were grown as ornamentals before finally being adopted as a food staple.
Tomatoes are fruits, by definition, though they have a much lower sugar content than other fruits. They are excellent producers, as many varieties grow quite tall and can produce a few pounds of fruit per plant. The German pink tomato variety, for example, often produces tomatoes that weigh 1-2lb each!
Ideal growing conditions
Tomatoes like sun, and they prefer a rich soil.
Start them indoors six to eight weeks before the final frost. When you transplant them outside, plant them deep into the soil, burying most or all of the stem. The stem will develop roots that will help stabilize the plant. Pinch off the last row of leaves, either at transplant time (if there are many leaves) or later, as more branches are added. The plant will then concentrate its effort in producing fruit, and it will not grow too densely at the base where it is most liable to break.
Most tomatoes, aside from dwarf varieties, require some sort of support, whether it be stakes, cages, or other structures.
To freeze tomatoes, core them, then throw them in freezer bags. To remove the skin later, simply run the frozen tomato under hot water, and it will peel off.
Tomatoes can be canned as is, as a sauce, or in many variety of salsas and chutneys.
If you are left with a multitude of green tomatoes at the end of the season, try green tomato mincemeat, salsa verde, or chow chow. You can layer green tomatoes in newspaper and keep them in a cold, dark place, and many of them will ripen.
If you have a food dehydrator, you can make your own “sun-dried” tomatoes.
There are two types of tomato plants:
- Determinate (bush) tomatoes grow to a set height, usually around four feet. As soon as the top bud starts to produce a fruit, the plant stops growing. All fruits ripen over the same interval of a couple of weeks, then the plant dies. Determinate plants are ideal if you want to cook batches of sauce or other dishes in which you must have a lot of tomatoes ready at one time.
- Indeterminate (vine) tomatoes grow all summer, to heights from six feet and onward. Blossoms and fruits are produced all summer long until the frost kills the plant.
The type of tomato will vary as well, from densely fleshed varieties suitable for sauce (such as roma tomatoes) to juicier types suitable for eating raw and fresh (such as beefsteak tomatoes).
Tomatoes also come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and colours.
- Black acorn trees
- Cooked tomatoes are better for you than raw ones. Cooking release more of their beneficial chemicals.
- During the annual La Tomatina festival in Bunol, Spain, participants throw an estimated 150,000 tomatoes at each other over the course of one week.